The Authorization Concept
R/3 uses authorization objects to assign authorizations to users. An authorization object is a template for an authorization. For example, authorization object F_SKA1_BUK - G/L Account: Authorization for company codes requires the specification of two field values: Company Code and Activity. To allow a General Ledger supervisor to create a general ledger master record, he/she must be assigned an authorization to create (Activity 1) accounts for a specific company code (eg. Company Code 2000). Such an authorization is created using the object F_SKA1_BUK by assigning these field values and naming the authorization following an appropriate convention (eg. Z_SCC20001).
Authorizations may be classified as general authorizations, organizational authorizations or functional authorizations. General authorizations specify the functions a user may perform. Authorization object F_SKA1_BUK has been assigned to the function for creating general ledger master records. The system checks for the user’s authorization to create general ledger accounts (Activity 1) in at least one company code. The system then checks whether the user is permitted to create accounts for the specified organizational unit (company code) and has the required functional authorizations. Authorizations in this case may restrict the user to certain Charts of Accounts. In addition, an authorization group may be defined in certain authorization objects to protect individual master records.
Profiles relating to an organizational role (eg. General Ledger Supervisor) are defined consisting of a list of authorizations and other profiles. Such profiles are then assigned to users with that role and stored in their user master record along with other data (eg. password).